John James Audubon
Audubon, John James ~ Bobwhite (Virginia Partridge), 1825Audubon developed his own methods for drawing birds. First, he killed them using fine shot to prevent them from being torn to pieces. He then used fixed wires to prop them up into a natural position, unlike the common method of many ornithologists of first preparing and stuffing the specimens into a rigid pose. When working on a major specimen, like an eagle, he would spend up to four 15 hour days, preparing, studying, and drawing it. His paintings of birds are set true-to-life in their natural habitat and often caught them in motion, especially feeding or hunting. This was in stark contrast with the stiff representations of birds by his contemporaries, such as Alexander Wilson. He also based his paintings on his own field observations.
He worked primarily with watercolor early on, then added colored chalk or pastel to add softness to feathers, especially those of owls and herons. He would employ multiple layers of watercoloring, and sometimes use gouache. Small species were often drawn to scale, placed on branches with berries, fruit, and flowers, sometimes in flight, and often with many individual birds to present all views of anatomy. Larger birds were often placed in their ground habitat or perching on stumps. At times, as with woodpeckers, he would combine several species on one page to offer contrasting features. Nests and eggs are frequently depicted as well, and occasionally predators, such as snakes. He usually illustrated male and female variations, and sometimes juveniles. In later drawings, he had aides render the habitat for him. Going behind faithful renderings of anatomy, Audubon employed carefully constructed composition, drama, and slightly exaggerated poses to achieve artistic as well as scientific effects. Related Paintings of John James Audubon :. | Startled Deer A Prairie Scene | Great Blue Heron | Stanley Hawk | Roseate Spoonbill | White Gerfalcons |
Related Artists:James hardy jnr.
Carlton Alfred Smith,RI,RWS
David de Coninck
(ca. 1644 Antwerp - after 1701, Brussels), also known as Rammelaar was a Flemish painter of the Baroque period. David Koninck was born in Antwerp and studied there under Jan Fyt. After a few years in Paris, he staid in Rome from ca 1671 to 1694, where joined the Bentvueghels with the nickname Rammelaar (rattle). He is sometimes stated to have died in Rome in 1687; however, he returned to his home country and is last recorded becoming a member of the painters guild in Brussels in 1701. His pictures are chiefly landscapes with animals and still life. He is likely unrelated to the generally contemporary Dutch painters, Philip de Koninck, or Philips Koninck (5 November 1619, Amsterdam - buried 4 October 1688, Amsterdam) and the fellow townsman Salomon de Koninck.
See Biography by Filippo Baldinucci.